Medicinal plants can protect different organs against diabetes-induced oxidative stress due to their antioxidant compounds. The present study was designed to investigate the potential of Allium saralicum R.M. Fritsch (A. saralicum) ethanolic extract to alleviate the adverse effects of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in male BALB/c mice.
Seventy male mice were randomly divided into seven groups (n = 10). Diabetes was experimentally induced by STZ (60 mg/kg bw). A. saralicum ethanolic extract with doses 5, 20, 80, and 320 mg/kg was administrated for 20 consecutive days in diabetic animals.
Based on the obtained results, the untreated diabetic mice showed high blood glucose level, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), white blood cells count (WBC), and platelets, as well as liver enzymes, urea, and creatinine. Administration of different doses of A. saralicum extract significantly reduced blood glucose level similar to glibenclamide.
Also, the levels of catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes restored toward normal level. All hepatic and renal function parameters as well as hematological parameters were improved following treatment with A. saralicum extract particularly at high doses.
Histopathological studies showed a decrease in hepatic, renal, and pancreatic damage after treatment with A. saralicum extract. The results of the present work indicate that A. saralicum ethanolic extract can attenuate diabetic hepato-renal, pancreatic, and hematological damages.
Ameliorative effect of hesperidin on streptozotocin-diabetes mellitus-induced testicular DNA damage and sperm quality degradation in Sprague-Dawley rats
This study aimed to investigate the effect of hesperidin on reproductive damage caused by diabetes mellitus. A total of 24 adult male rats were divided into four groups: control group, hesperidin group, diabetes mellitus group, and diabetes mellitus + hesperidin group. The study was conducted for 4 weeks.
At the end of the study, the rats were sacrificed and testicular oxidative stress markers, DNA damage in testes (8-OHdG), and routine sperm parameters were evaluated. According to the results of the study, most of the parameters were similar in the control and hesperidin groups but CAT activity in the hesperidin group was statistically higher than the control group.
Hesperidin supplementation significantly reduced these side effects in diabetic rats. Also, diabetes mellitus (DM) significantly increased MDA levels and decreased enzymatic antioxidant (GSH-Px, SOD, CAT) activities and nonenzymatic (GSH) antioxidant levels.
On the other hand, hesperidin supplementation significantly decreased oxidative stress and increased enzymatic antioxidant activities and nonenzymatic antioxidant levels due to the antioxidant effect.
Also, DM increased DNA damage levels in testicular tissue and hesperidin supplementation significantly decreased DNA damage levels in testes of diabetic male rats. Besides, sperm motility significantly decreased while abnormal sperm rate and dead sperm rate were significantly increased in diabetic rats.
In conclusion, hesperidin supplementation could be beneficial for decreasing the side effects on the male reproductive system caused by DM in rats. Diabetes is an important metabolic disease, affecting quality of life and fertility. Hesperidin has an antioxidant effect and has a potential protective effect on reproductive toxicity in diabetic male rats.
Hesperidin decreased oxidative stress, and DNA damage in testis resulted from hyperglycemia and improved sperm quality in diabetic rats. The hesperidin supplementation could be a good strategy to protect male fertility in diabetic patients.
Movement Is Life-Optimizing Patient Access to Total Joint Arthroplasty: Diabetes Mellitus
This is one of a series of articles that focuses on maximizing access to total joint arthroplasty by providing preoperative optimization pathways to all patients to promote the best results and minimize postoperative complications. Because of inequities in health care, an optimization process that is not equipped to support the underserved can potentially worsen disparities in the utilization of arthroplasty.
A staggering 10.5% of the American population lives with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes prevalence is 17% higher in rural communities compared with urban communities. Rates of diabetes are higher in African American, Hispanic, and American Indian populations.
Barriers to health care are higher in rural areas and for vulnerable communities, positioning the management of diabetes at the intersection of risk. Poor glycemic control is a predictor of periprosthetic joint infection.
Optimization tools include assessing for food security, knowledge of a social safety net and community resources, patient diabetic literacy, and relationships with primary care providers to ensure continuous check-ins as well as partnering with specialty endocrine diabetic clinics.
Several strategic recommendations, such as healthcare navigators and promotores (Latinx population), are made to enable and empower, such as continuous glucose monitoring, the preoperative patient to reach a safe preoperative optimization goal for their TJA surgery.
Platelet biomarkers identifying mild cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes patients
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an independent risk factor of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, identifying periphery biomarkers correlated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is of importance for early diagnosis of AD. Here, we performed platelet proteomics in T2DM patients with MCI (T2DM-MCI) and without MCI (T2DM-nMCI).
Pearson analysis of the omics data with MMSE (mini-mental state examination), Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 (β-amyloid), and rGSK-3β(T/S9) (total to Serine-9-phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β) revealed that mitophagy/autophagy-, insulin signaling-, and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathways-related proteins were most significantly involved.
Among them, only the increase of optineurin, an autophagy-related protein, was simultaneously correlated with the reduced MMSE score, and the increased Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 and rGSK-3β(T/S9), and the optineurin alone could discriminate T2DM-MCI from T2DM-nMCI.
Combination of the elevated platelet optineurin and rGSK-3β(T/S9) enhanced the MCI-discriminating efficiency with AUC of 0.927, specificity of 86.7%, sensitivity of 85.3%, and accuracy of 0.859, which is promising for predicting cognitive decline in T2DM patients.
Diabetes is a well-known risk factor for atherosclerosis, but the association between a family history of diabetes and atherosclerosis remains unknown. In this study, we assessed the association between a family history of diabetes and increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, in a middle-aged Korean population.